David Wong | Cryptologie | Markdown http://www.cryptologie.net/ About my studies in Cryptography. en-us Wed, 11 Apr 2018 20:30:18 +0200 Decentralized Application Security Project David Wong Wed, 11 Apr 2018 20:30:18 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/440/decentralized-application-security-project/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/440/decentralized-application-security-project/#comments

The page is on [github](https://github.com/CryptoServices/dasp) as well and we welcome contributions to the [top 10](https://dasp.co/) and the [list of known exploits](https://dasp.co/timeline.html). In addition we're looking to host more projects related to the Ethereum space there, if you are looking for research projects or are looking to contribute on tools or anything that can make smart contracts development more secure, [file an issue on github](https://github.com/CryptoServices/dasp/issues)!

Note that I will be giving the talk again at [IT Camp](https://itcamp.ro/agenda/) in Cluj-Napoca in a few months. ]]>
Fed Up Getting Shattered and Log Jammed? A New Generation of Crypto Is Coming David Wong Sun, 08 Apr 2018 14:09:17 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/439/fed-up-getting-shattered-and-log-jammed-a-new-generation-of-crypto-is-coming/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/439/fed-up-getting-shattered-and-log-jammed-a-new-generation-of-crypto-is-coming/#comments
<iframe width="800" height="515" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/bTGLO4obxco" frameborder="0" allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen></iframe>

[I gave a summary of the talk here](https://www.cryptologie.net/article/432/introducing-disco/). You can also directly check out the specification of Disco or the libdisco library on [www.discocrypto.com](https://www.discocrypto.com). ]]>
Two Student Tickets for Black Hat Asia in March 2018 David Wong Mon, 22 Jan 2018 12:12:13 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/438/two-student-tickets-for-black-hat-asia-in-march-2018/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/438/two-student-tickets-for-black-hat-asia-in-march-2018/#comments
Anyone interested?

EDIT: these have been given away. ]]>
On Real World Crypto and Secure Messaging David Wong Thu, 11 Jan 2018 00:49:42 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/437/on-real-world-crypto-and-secure-messaging/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/437/on-real-world-crypto-and-secure-messaging/#comments
Today Paul Rösler came to **Real World Crypto** to talk about the results, which is a good thing.
Interestingly, in the middle of the talk Wired released a worrying article untitled [WhatsApp Security Flaws Could Allow Snoops to Slide Into Group Chats](https://www.wired.com/story/whatsapp-security-flaws-encryption-group-chats/).
Interestingly as well, at some point during the day Matthew Green also wrote about it in [Attack of the Week: Group Messaging in WhatsApp and Signal](https://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2018/01/10/attack-of-the-week-group-messaging-in-whatsapp-and-signal/).

They make it seem really worrisome, but should we really be scared about the findings?

**Traceable delivery** is the first thing that came up in the presentation. What is it? It’s the check marks that appear when your recipient receives a message you sent. It's mostly a UI feature but the fact that no security is tied to it allows a server to fake them while dropping messages, making you think that your recipient has wrongly received the message. This was never a security feature to begin with, and nobody never claimed it was one.

**Closeness** is the fact that the WhatsApp servers can add a new participant into your private group chat without your consent (assuming you’re the admin). This could lead people to share messages to the group including to a rogue participant. The caveat is that:

* previous messages cannot be decrypted by the newcomer because a new key is generated when someone new joins the mix

* everybody is receiving a notification that somebody joined, at this point everyone can choose to willingly send messages to the group

Again, I do not see this as a security vulnerability. Maybe because I’ve understood how group chats can work (or miswork) from growing up with shady websites and applications. But I see this more as a UI/UX problem.

The paper is not bad though, and I think they’re right to point out these issues. Actually, they do something very interesting in it, they start it up with a nice **security model** that they use to analyse several messaging applications:

> Intuitively, a secure group communication protocol should provide a level of security comparable to when a group of people communicates in an isolated room: everyone in the room hears the communication (**traceable delivery**), everyone knows who spoke (**authenticity**) and how often words have been said (**no duplication**), nobody outside the room can either speak into the room (**no creation**) or hear the communication inside (**confidentiality**), and the door to the room is only opened for invited persons (**closeness**).

Following this security model, you could rightfully think that we haven’t reached the best state in secure messaging. But the fuss about it could also wrongfully make you think that these are worrisome attacks that need to be dealt with.

The facts are here though, this paper has been blown out of proportion. [Moxie (one of the creator of Signal) reacts on hackernews](https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=16117487):

> To me, this article reads as a better example of the problems with the security industry and the way security research is done today, because I think the lesson to anyone watching is clear: don't build security into your products, because that makes you a target for researchers, even if you make the right decisions, and regardless of whether their research is practically important or not.

I'd say the problem is in the reaction, not in the published analysis. But it's a sad reaction indeed.

Good night.
Updates on How to Backdoor Diffie-Hellman David Wong Mon, 08 Jan 2018 18:12:54 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/436/updates-on-how-to-backdoor-diffie-hellman/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/436/updates-on-how-to-backdoor-diffie-hellman/#comments on how to backdoor the Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithm. Inside the whitepaper,
I discussed three different ways to construct such a backdoor; two of these were considered nobody-but-us (NOBUS) backdoors.

> A NOBUS backdoor is a backdoor accessible only to those who have the knowledge of some secret (a number, a passphrase, ...). Making a NOBUS backdoor irreversible without the knowledge of the secret.

In October 2016, Dorey et al. from Western University (Canada) published a white paper called [Indiscreet Logs: Persistent Diffie-Hellman Backdoors in TLS](http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/999). The research pointed out that one of my NOBUS construction was **reversible**, while the other NOBUS construction was **more dangerous** than expected.

I wrote this blogpost resuming their discoveries a long time ago, but never took the time to publish it here. In the rest of this post, I'll expect you to have an understanding of the two NOBUS backdoors introduced in [my paper](https://www.nccgroup.trust/uk/our-research/how-to-backdoor-diffie-hellman/).
You can find a summary of the ideas [here](https://www.cryptologie.net/article/360/how-to-backdoor-diffie-hellman-quick-explanation/) as well.

Reversing the first NOBUS construction

For those who have attended my talk at [Defcon](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90EYVy35gsY&t=1748s), Toorcon or a meetup; I should assure you that I did not talk about the first (now-known
reversible) NOBUS construction. It was left out of the story because it was not such a nice backdoor in the first place. Its security margins
were weaker (at the time) compared to the second construction, and it was also harder to implement.

### Baby-Step Giant-Step

The attack Dorey et al. wrote about comes from a 2005 white paper, where
Coron et al. [published an attack](http://eprint.iacr.org/2010/650) on a
construction based on Diffie-Hellman. But before I can tell you about
the attack, I need to refresh your memory on how the **baby-step giant-step** (BSGS) algorithm works.

Imagine that a generator \\(g\\) generates a group \\(G\\) in
\\(\mathbb{Z}\_p\\), and that we want to find the order of that group
\\(|G| = p\_1\\).

Now what we could do if we have a good idea of the size of that order
\\(p\_1\\), is to split that length in two right in the middle: \\(p\_1 = a + b \cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}\\), where \\( l \\) is the bitlength of \\(p\_1\\).

This allows us to write two different lists:

\\[ \begin{cases}
L = \{ g^i \mod{p} \mid 0 < i < 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} \} \\\\
L' = \{ g^{-j \cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} } \mod{p} \mid 0 \leq j < 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} \}

Now imagine that you compute these two lists, and that you then stumble
upon a collision between elements from these two sets. This would entail
that for some \\(i\\) and \\(j\\) you have:

\\[ \begin{align} &g^i = g^{-j \cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2}
\rceil}} \pmod{p}\\\\ \Leftrightarrow &g^{i + j \cdot 2^{\lceil
\frac{l}{2} \rceil}} = 1 \pmod{p}\\\\ \Rightarrow &i + j \cdot
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} = a + b \cdot 2^{\lceil
\frac{l}{2} \rceil} = p\_1 \end{align} \\]

We found \\(p\_1\\) in time quasi-linear (via sorting, searching trees,
etc...) in \\(\sqrt{p\_1}\\)!

### The Construction

Now let's review our first NOBUS construction, detailed in [section 4 of my paper](https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/644.pdf).


Here \\(p - 1 = 2 p\_1 p\_2 \\) with \\( p\_1 \\) our small-enough
subgroup generated by \\(g\\) in \\(\mathbb{Z}\_p\\), and \\(p\_2\\)
our big-enough subgroup that makes the factorization of our modulus
near-impossible. The factor \\(q\\) is generated in the same way.

### Using BSGS on our construction

At this point, we could try to reverse the construction using BSGS by
creating these two lists and hopping for a collision:

\\[ \begin{cases} L = \{ g^i \mod{p} \mid 0 < i <
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} \} \\\\ L' = \{ g^{-j \cdot
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} } \mod{p} \mid 0 \leq j <
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} \} \end{cases} \\]

Unfortunately, remember that \\(p\\) is hidden inside of \\( n = p q
\\). We have no knowledge of that factor. Instead, we could calculate
these two lists:

\\[ \begin{cases} L = \{ g^i \mod{n} \mid 0 < i <
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} \} \\\\ L' = \{ g^{-j \cdot
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} } \mod{n} \mid 0 \leq j <
2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil} \} \end{cases} \\]

And this time, we can test for a collision between two elements of these
lists "mod \\(p\\)" via the \\(gcd\\) function:

\\[ gcd(n, g^i - g^{-j \cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}})

Hopefully this will yield \\(p\\), one of the factor of \\(n\\). If you
do not understand why, it works because if \\(g^i\\) and \\(g^{-j
\cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}}\\) collide "mod \\(p\\)", then
we have:

\\[ p | g^i - g^{-j \cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}} \\]

Since we also know that \\( p | n \\), it results that the \\(gcd\\) of
the two returns our hidden \\(p\\)!

Unfortunately at this point, the persnickety reader will have noticed
that this cannot be done in the same complexity as the original BSGS
attack. Indeed, we need to compute the \\(gcd\\) for all pairs and this
increases our complexity to \\(\mathcal{O}(p\_1)\\), the same
complexity as the attack I pointed out in my paper.

### The Attack

Now here is the that trick Coron et al. found out. They could optimize
calls to \\(gcd\\) down to \\(\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{p\_1})\\), which would
make the reversing as easy as using the backdoor. The trick is as

1. Create the polynomial

\\[ f(x) = (x - g) (x - g^2) \cdots (x - g^{2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2}
\rceil}}) \mod{n} \\]

2. For \\(0 \leq j < 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}\\) compute
the following \\(gcd\\) until a factor of \\(n\\) is found (as

\\[ gcd(n, f(g^{-j \cdot 2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}})) \\]

It's pretty easy to see that the \\(gcd\\) will still yield a factor, as
before. Except that this time we only need to call it at most
\\(2^{\lceil \frac{l}{2} \rceil}\\) times, which is \\(\approx
\sqrt{p\_1}\\) times by definition.

Improving the second NOBUS construction

The second NOBUS backdoor construction received a different treatment.
If you do not know how this backdoor works I urge you to first watch [my talk on the subject](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90EYVy35gsY&t=1748s).

Let's ask ourselves the question: what happens if the client and the
server do not negotiate an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman key exchange, and
instead use RSA or Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman to perform the key

This could be because the client did not list a `DHE` (ephemeral
Diffie-Hellman) cipher suite in priority, or because the server decided
to pick a different kind of key agreement algorithm.

If this is the case, we would observe an exchange that we could not spy
on or tamper with via our DHE backdoor.

Dorey et al. discovered that an **active** man-in-the-middle could
change that by tampering with the original client's `ClientHello`
message to single-out a `DHE` cipher suite (removing the rest of the
non-`DHE` cipher suites) and **forcing the key exchange to happen by way
of the Diffie-Hellman algorithm**.

This works because there are no countermeasures in TLS 1.2 (or prior) to
prevent this to happen.

Final notes

My original white paper has been updated to reflect Dorey et al.'s
developments while minimally changing its structure (to retain
chronology of the discoveries). You can obtain it [here](https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/644).

Furthermore, let me mention that the new version of TLS —**TLS 1.3**—
will fix all of these issues in two ways:

- A server now signs the entire observed transcript at some point
during the handshake. This successfully prevents any tampering with
the `ClientHello` message as the client can verify the signature and
make sure that no active man-in-the-middle has tampered with the
- Diffie-Hellman groups are now specified, exactly like how curves
have always been specified for the Elliptic Curve variant of
Diffie-Hellman. This means that unless you are in control of both
the client and the server's implementations, you cannot force one or
the other to use a backdoored group (unless you can backdoor one of
the specified group, which is what happened with [RFC
5114](http://blog.intothesymmetry.com/2016/10/the-rfc-5114-saga.html)). ]]>
Best crypto blog posts of 2017 David Wong Wed, 27 Dec 2017 17:05:28 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/435/best-crypto-blog-posts-of-2017/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/435/best-crypto-blog-posts-of-2017/#comments
Merry christmas and happy new year. We're done for the year and so it is time for me to write this blog post ([I did the same last year](https://cryptologie.net/article/397/crypto-blogging-award-2016/) by the way).

I'll copy verbatim what I wrote last year about what makes a good blog post:

* **Interesting**. I need to learn something out of it, whatever the topic is. If it's only about results I'm generally not interested.
* **Pedagogical**. Don't dump your unfiltered knowledge on me, I'm dumb. Help me with diagrams and explain it to me like I'm 5.
* **Well written**. I can't read boring. Bonus point if it's funny :)

Without further adue, here is the list!

* [building lattice reduction (LLL) intuition](https://kel.bz/post/lll/) from [Kelby Ludwig](https://twitter.com/kelbyludwig) is a must read if you want to understand how lattices and lattice reductions work. By the way, this post is the perfect example of a blogpost that fits all my criteria of a good blog post. Make sure to check [Kelby's blog post of last year](https://kel.bz/post/lattices/) as well.

* [Introducing Miscreant: a multi-language misuse resistant encryption library](https://tonyarcieri.com/introducing-miscreant-a-multi-language-misuse-resistant-encryption-library) from [Tony Arcieri](https://twitter.com/bascule) is the perfect introduction to key wrapping and SIV modes. [AES-GCM-SIV](https://www.imperialviolet.org/2017/05/14/aesgcmsiv.html) from [Adam Langley]() is a good addition.

* [How I implemented my own crypto](http://loup-vaillant.fr/articles/implemented-my-own-crypto) is a trip report from **Loup Vaillant** about implementing his own cryptographic library.

* [Why TLS 1.3 isn't in browsers yet](https://blog.cloudflare.com/why-tls-1-3-isnt-in-browsers-yet/) by [Nick Sullivan](https://twitter.com/grittygrease) is a good summary of the mess that TLS 1.3 is (specifically because it needs to support so many legacy versions). For more lolz, make sure to read [Matthew Green](https://twitter.com/matthew_d_green)'s [The strange story of “Extended Random”](https://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2017/12/19/the-strange-story-of-extended-random/).

* Cloudflare has a lot more good blogposts: [Privacy Pass - “The Math”](https://blog.cloudflare.com/privacy-pass-the-math/) from **Alex Davidson** goes through the math of one of the most crypto-y feature ever seen from a "normal" company, [SIDH in Go for quantum-resistant TLS 1.3](https://blog.cloudflare.com/sidh-go) by [Henry de Valence](https://twitter.com/hdevalence) does the same for the SIDH post-quantum key exchange. (A good addition to this is [SIDH a quantum resistant algorithm for DH exchange](https://crypto.anarres.info/2017/sidh) by **Shevek**).

* [HTTPS on Stack Overflow: The End of a Long Road](https://nickcraver.com/blog/2017/05/22/https-on-stack-overflow/) is a huge post from [Nick Craver](https://twitter.com/Nick_Craver) going into depth about the troubles of migrating towards HTTPS for large infrastructures. In addition, be sure to check [Jan Schaumann](https://twitter.com/jschauma)'s work on doing the same thing for yahoo: [The Razor's Edge - Cutting Your TLS Baggage](https://www.netmeister.org/blog/razors-edge.html).

* [SSL Certificate Exchange](http://www.commandlinefanatic.com/cgi-bin/showarticle.cgi?article=art061) from **Joshua Davies** is a really useful walkthrough of a TLS certificate. If you don't know much about TLS certificates and need to know more, it's a really good read.

* [Is SHA-3 slow?](https://keccak.team/2017/is_sha3_slow.html), [Keccak: open-source cryptography ](https://keccak.team/2017/open_source_crypto.html) and [Why Keccak is not ARX ](https://keccak.team/2017/not_arx.html). The [Keccak team](https://twitter.com/KeccakTeam/) made an excellent job this year of talking (and debunking critics) about the new SHA-3 hash function. You can learn about the different concepts surrounding SHA-3 through these posts.

* [Why Replace SHA-1 with BLAKE2?](https://research.kudelskisecurity.com/2017/03/06/why-replace-sha-1-with-blake2/) on the other hand, written by [JP Aumasson](https://twitter.com/veorq), tells you to replace your SHA-1 instances with his hash function BLAKE2. JP writes a lot of very good blog post, so check this one on [Should Curve25519 keys be validated?](https://research.kudelskisecurity.com/2017/04/25/should-ecdh-keys-be-validated/) (that launched the debate on Curve25519 key validation) or the ones on his submission to NIST's PQ crypto not-a-competition thingy: [Improving the SPHINCS post-quantum signature scheme, part 1](https://research.kudelskisecurity.com/2017/09/25/improving-the-sphincs-post-quantum-signature-scheme-part-1/).

* [Cryptographic vulnerabilities in IOTA](https://medium.com/@neha/cryptographic-vulnerabilities-in-iota-9a6a9ddc4367) by [Neha Narula](Neha Narula) and the follow up [Our response to "A Cryptocurrency Without a Blockchain Has Been Built to Outperform Bitcoin"](https://www.media.mit.edu/posts/iota-response/) by **Joi Ito** (both from the [Digital Currency medialab of MIT](https://twitter.com/medialab)) because it shows you how hilariously bad some cryptocurrencies are (interestingly IOTA reached and lost to 4th place (in terms of market cap) in the cryptocurrency world a few months ago).

* [Confidential Transactions from Basic Principles](http://cryptoservices.github.io/cryptography/2017/07/21/Sigs.html) from **Michael Rosenberg** is a pedogagical intro to ring signatures, range proofs and other cryptographic concepts. This is useful to dig into especially if you're keen on anonimity inside of cryptocurrencies. For an exploit of these, be sure to check [Exploiting Low Order Generators in One-Time Ring Signatures](https://nickler.ninja/blog/2017/05/23/exploiting-low-order-generators-in-one-time-ring-signatures/) from **Jonas Nick**.

* [What are zk-SNARKs?](https://z.cash/technology/zksnarks.html). **Zcash** has a series of articles about its underlying technology (anonimity inside of a cryptocurrency), it seems well written (like a lot of things on their website).

* [Survey of Discrete Log Algorithms](https://fortenf.org/e/crypto/2017/12/03/survey-of-discrete-log-algos.html) is a good intro to the discrete logarithm problem.

* [Walking through an F* proof](https://gist.github.com/s-zanella/97ee3dfbead56e8ce3b2316ff0bfb636) by [Santiago Zanella-Beguelin](https://twitter.com/xEFFFFFFF) seems like a good way to get yourself into F*.

That's it!

Have I missed something? Please tell me in the comments.

If you want more links like these, be sure to subscribe to my [link section](http://cryptologie.net/links) here on this website.

See you in 2018! ]]>
SHAKE and SP 800-185 David Wong Thu, 14 Dec 2017 16:22:01 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/434/shake-and-sp-800-185/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/434/shake-and-sp-800-185/#comments
![fips 202](/upload/fips202.png)

SHAKE is not a hash function, but an **Extendable Output Function** (or XOF). It behaves like a normal hash function except for the fact that it produces an “infinite” output. So you could decide to generate an output of one million bytes or an output of one byte. Obviously don't do the one byte output thing because it's not really secure. The other particularity of SHAKE is that it uses saner parameters that allow it to achieve the desired targets of 128-bit (for **SHAKE128**) or 256-bit (for **SHAKE256**) for security.
This makes it a faster alternative than SHA-3 while being a more flexible and versatile function.

## SP 800-185

SHAKE is intriguing enough that just a year following the standardization of SHA-3 (2016) another standard is released from the NIST's factory: [Special Publication 800-185](http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-185.pdf). Inside of it a new customizable version of SHAKE (named cSHAKE) is defined, the novelty: it takes an additional "customization string" as argument. This string can be anything from an empty string to the name of your protocol, but the slightest change will produce entirely different outputs for the same inputs. This
customization string is mostly used as domain separation for the other functions defined in the new document: **KMAC**, **TupleHash** and **ParallelHash**. The rest of this blogpost explains what these new functions are for.


Imagine that you want to send a message to your good friend Bob. You do not care about encrypting your message, but to make sure that nobody modifies the message in transit, you hash it with SHA-256 (the variant of SHA-2 with an output length of 256-bit) and append the hash to the message you're sending.

message || SHA-256(message)

On the other side, Bob detaches the last 256-bit of the message (the hash), and computes SHA-256 himself on the message. If the obtained result is different from the received hash, Bob will know that someone has modified the message.

**Does this work? Is this secure?**

Of course not, I hope you know that. A hash function is public, there are no secrets involved, someone who can modify the message can also recompute the hash and replace the original one with the new one.

Alright, so you might think that doing the following might work then:

message || SHA-256(key || message)

Both you and Bob now share that symmetric `key` which should prevent any man-in-the-middle attacker to recompute that hash.

**Do you really think this is working?**

Nope it doesn't. The reason, not always known, is that SHA-256 (and most variants of SHA-2) are vulnerable to what is called a **length extension attack**.

You see, unlike the sponge construction that releases just a part of its state as final output, SHA-256 is based on the [Merkle–Damgård construction](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merkle%E2%80%93Damg%C3%A5rd_construction) which outputs the entirity of its state as final output. If an attacker observes that hash, and pretends that the absorption of the input hasn't finished, he can continue hashing and obtain the hash of `message || more` (pretty much, I'm omitting some details like padding). This would allow the attacker to add more stuff to the original message without being detected by Bob:

message || more || SHA-256(key || message || more)

Fortunately, every SHA-3 participants (including the SHA-3 winner) were required to be resistant to these kind of attacks. Thus, **KMAC** is a **Message Authentication Code** leveraging the resistance of SHA-3 to length-extension attacks. The construction `HASH(key || message)` is now possible and the simplified idea of KMAC is to perform the following computation:

cSHAKE(custom_string=“KMAC”, input=“key || message”)

KMAC also uses a trick to allow pre-computation of the keyed-state: it pads the key up to the block size of cSHAKE. For that reason I would recommend not to come up with your own SHAKE-based MAC construction but to just use KMAC if you need such a function.

## TupleHash

**TupleHash** is a construction allowing you to hash a structure in an non-ambiguous way. In the following example, concatenating together the parts of an RSA public key allows you to obtain a fingerprint.


A malicious attacker could compute a second public key, using the bits
of the first one, that would compute to the same fingerprint.

![fingerprint attack](/upload/Screen_Shot_2017-12-14_at_3.20_.22_PM_.png)

Ways to fix this issue are to include the type and length of each
element, or just the length, which is what TupleHash does. Simplified,
the idea is to compute:

input=“len_1 || data_1 || len_2 || data_2 || len_3 || data_3 || ..."

Where `len_i` is the length of `data_i`.

## ParallelHash

**ParallelHash** makes use of a tree hashing construction to allow
faster processing of big inputs and large files. The input is first
divided in several chunks of `B` bytes (where `B` is an argument of your
choice), each chunk is then separately hashed with
`cSHAKE(custom_string=“”, . )` producing as many 256-bit output as
there are chunks. This step can be parallelized with SIMD instructions
or other techniques available on your architecture. Finally each output
is concatenated and hashed a final time with
`cSHAKE(custom_string=“ParallelHash”, . )`. Again, details have
been omitted.

Real World Crypto 2018 David Wong Mon, 11 Dec 2017 18:52:30 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/433/real-world-crypto-2018/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/433/real-world-crypto-2018/#comments
<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Register for <a href="https://twitter.com/RealWorldCrypto?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@RealWorldCrypto</a> 2018 soon or be disappointed. We are reaching our capacity.</p>— Nigel Smart (@SmartCryptology) <a href="https://twitter.com/SmartCryptology/status/940212072364699649?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 11, 2017</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

You might think it's too crypto-y for you, or not real-world enough. Think again. I'm not the only one who think this conference is awesome.

<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">I will be at RWC. ‘nuff said.</p>— Thomas Pornin (@BearSSLnews) <a href="https://twitter.com/BearSSLnews/status/940266728168099841?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 11, 2017</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">My favorite conference of the year, Real World Crypto, is coming up, and it’s in Zurich!<br><br>If you (broadly speaking) study crypto and wouldn’t attend because money, DM me something you made (a cryptopals solution, blog post, uni assignment…) and I’ll pay your registration.</p>— Filippo Valsorda (@FiloSottile) <a href="https://twitter.com/FiloSottile/status/939916067698290688?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 10, 2017</a></blockquote>
<script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">I met the Tor team and started the design that would become PrivacyPass at <a href="https://twitter.com/RealWorldCrypto?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@RealWorldCrypto</a> in 2016 <a href="https://t.co/dkijEvmh8M">https://t.co/dkijEvmh8M</a> <a href="https://t.co/MBPvD11mns">https://t.co/MBPvD11mns</a></p>— George Tankersley (@gtank__) <a href="https://twitter.com/gtank__/status/938228341357907968?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 6, 2017</a></blockquote>
<script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">RWC 2018: less rugby, more crypto(graphy). If you don't go, someone else will.</p>— Santiago Zanella (@xEFFFFFFF) <a href="https://twitter.com/xEFFFFFFF/status/940275565579440130?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 11, 2017</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">I can&#39;t make it to RWC2018 so I&#39;ll match Filippo&#39;s offer. Promise to send me a write-up of the best talk you attended at RWC and I&#39;ll pay for your registration. <a href="https://t.co/Da8eNuNVUB">https://t.co/Da8eNuNVUB</a><br><br>Preference goes to students and underrepresented groups in cryptography. <a href="https://t.co/ZWTapi7Pva">https://t.co/ZWTapi7Pva</a></p>&mdash; yan (@bcrypt) <a href="https://twitter.com/bcrypt/status/940060661932888064?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">December 11, 2017</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Introducing Disco David Wong Fri, 08 Dec 2017 10:39:28 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/432/introducing-disco/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/432/introducing-disco/#comments
![black hat disco](/upload/DQdIgR9V4AIxDkb.jpg-large_copy_.jpg)

I've introduced both the [Strobe protocol framework](https://www.cryptologie.net/article/416/the-strobe-protocol-framework/) and the [Noise protocol framework](https://www.cryptologie.net/article/349/the-noise-protocol-framework/) in the past. So I won't go over them again, but I advise you to read these two blog posts before reading this one (if you care about the technical details).

As a recap:

**1.** The [Strobe protocol framework](https://strobe.sourceforge.io) is a framework to build symmetric protocols. It's all based on the SHA-3 permutation (keccak-f) and the duplex construction. Codebase is tiny (~1000LOC) and it can also be used to build simple cryptographic operations.

![strobe commands](/upload/strobe_commands.png)

**2.** The [Noise protocol framework](http://noiseprotocol.org) is a framework to build things like TLS. It's very simple and flexible, and I believe a good TLS alternative for today.

![noise nx](/upload/noise_nx.png)

Looking at the previous diagram representing the `NX` handshake pattern of Noise (where a client is not authenticated and a server sends its long-term static key as part of the handshake) I thought to myself: I can simplify this. For example, you can see:

* an `h` value absorbing every messages being sent and received, and being used to authenticate the transcript at some points in the handshake.
* a `ck` value being used to derive keys from the different key exchanges happening during the handshake.

These things can be simplified greatly by using Strobe to get rid of all the symmetric tricks, while at the same time getting rid of all the symmetric primitives in use (AES-GCM, SHA-256, HMAC and HKDF).

This is exactly how I came up with [Disco](https://www.discocrypto.com/disco.html), merging Noise and Strobe to simplify the former.


Here is the simplification I made of the previous diagram. We're using Strobe's functions like `send_CLR`, `recv_CLR` and `AD` to absorb messages being sent or received as well as the output of the different key exchanges. We're also using `send_AEAD` and `recv_AEAD` to encrypt/decrypt and authenticate the whole transcript up to this point (these functions don't exist in Strobe, but they are basically `send/recv_ENC` followed by `send/recv_MAC`).

![disco nx](/upload/disco_NX.png)

You can see that everything looks suddenly much more simple to implement or understand. `send_CLR`, `recv_CLR` and `AD` are all functions that do the same thing: they XOR the input with the rate (public part) of our strobe state. It is so elegant that I made another diagram showing what is **really** happening in this diagram with Strobe. (Something that I obviously couldn't have done with AES-GCM, SHA-256, HMAC and HKDF.)

![duplex view disco nx](/upload/duplex_view.png)

You can see two lines here in the `StrobeState`. The capacity (secret part) is on the left and the rate (public part) is on the right. Most things get absorbed by just XORing the input with the public part (of course if we reach the end of the public part, we would permute and start on a new block like we do for hashing with the sponge construction).

When we send or receive encrypted data, we also need to do a little dance and first permute the state to produce something based on all of the data we've previously absorbed (including outputs of diffie-hellman key exchanges). This output is random enough to allow us to encrypt (or decrypt) by just imitating one-time pads and stream ciphers: XORing the randomized public part with a plaintext (or a ciphertext).

![authenticated encryption](/upload/Screen_Shot_2017-12-08_at_4.08_.05_PM_.png)

Once this is done, the state is permuted again to generate a new series of random numbers (in the public part) which will be the authentication tag, allowing us to authenticate everything that was absorbed previously.

After that the state can be cloned and differentiated to allow both sides to encrypt data on different channels (unless they want to use the same channel by taking turns). Strobe functions can continue to be used to continuously encrypt/decrypt application data and authenticate the whole transcript (starting from the first handshake message to the last message sent or received).

![no iv](/upload/noiv.png)

I thought the idea was worth exploring, and so I wrote a specification and proposed it as an extension to Noise. [You can read it here](https://www.discocrypto.com/disco.html)). Details are still being actively discussed on the [Noise mailing list](https://moderncrypto.org/mail-archive/noise/2017/thread.html). Major points of contention seem to be that the Strobe functions used do not introduce intra-handshake forward-secrecy, and that the post-handshake API does not mirror the Noise's post-handshake API one (nonce-based) by default. The latter is on purpose to avoid having to setup nonces and keeping track of them if not needed (because messages are expected to arrive in order thanks to the transport protocol used underneath disco).


After all of that, I figured out that I would probably have to be the first one to implement Disco. So I went ahead and first implemented a Noise-based protocol in Golang (that I call [NoisePlugAndPlay](https://github.com/mimoo/NoiseGo)). I tested it with test vectors and other libraries to get a minimum amount of confidence in what I did, then I decided to implement Disco on top of it. The protocol I created is called [libdisco](https://www.discocrypto.com).


It's more than just a protocol to encrypt communications though. Since I'm using Strobe, I can also make it a symmetric cryptographic library without adding much lines of code (100 wrapping lines of code to be exact).

Of course it's all **experimental**. I will not recommend anyone to use this in production.

Instead, play with it and appreciate the concepts. Down the line, this could really be the modern alternative to TLS we've been waiting for (of course I'm biased here). But the road is long and paved with issues that need better be fixed before entering a stable version.

If I caught your interest, go take a look at [www.discocrypto.com](https://www.discocrypto.com).

My talk on SHA-3 and derived functions at DEF CON 25 David Wong Sat, 02 Dec 2017 11:52:06 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/431/my-talk-on-sha-3-and-derived-functions-at-def-con-25/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/431/my-talk-on-sha-3-and-derived-functions-at-def-con-25/#comments
<iframe width="760" height="515" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/BJnjAF2cz48" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

SHA-3 vs the world @ OWASP London David Wong Thu, 23 Nov 2017 22:49:16 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/430/sha-3-vs-the-world-owasp-london/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/430/sha-3-vs-the-world-owasp-london/#comments
<iframe width="800" height="515" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2R3dTeRBhQw" frameborder="0" gesture="media" allow="encrypted-media" allowfullscreen></iframe>

It was apparently the first crypto talk in 5 years so I'm glad I revived this part of OWASP =) ]]>
Speaking at OWASP David Wong Wed, 22 Nov 2017 19:38:07 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/429/speaking-at-owasp/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/429/speaking-at-owasp/#comments
It's sold out, but there will be a live streaming posted somewhere (maybe on their [facebook page](https://www.facebook.com/OWASPLondon/?hc_ref=ARS5YLv6cSPRiohWZmAINjN4KJ6I-43iz7Ou3t_gODtfovLxDNtpdoO1S1OppgCjwWM)?).

After that, I will be talking at Black Hat Europe about Disco and libDisco. Stay tuned. ]]>
Ethernaut CTF walk through David Wong Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:45:07 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/428/ethernaut-ctf-walk-through/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/428/ethernaut-ctf-walk-through/#comments
<iframe width="853" height="480" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RHh1qSx7v6w" frameborder="0" gesture="media" allowfullscreen></iframe>

I did this at 2am in a hotel room in Romania and ended up not finishing the last challenge because I took too long and didn't want to re-record that part. Basically what I was missing in my malicious contract: a function to withdraw tokens from the victim contract (it would have work since I had a huge amount of token via the attack). I figured I should still upload that as it might be useful to someone. ]]>
Noise Plug-and-play Implementation in Golang David Wong Sat, 04 Nov 2017 15:42:50 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/427/noise-plug-and-play-implementation-in-golang/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/427/noise-plug-and-play-implementation-in-golang/#comments
It is now a real protocol built from the Noise protocol framework!

Noise doesn't work right off-the-bat because **it does not have a length field in its messages**. This means that two problems can arise:

* if a noise message is fragmented, the receiver will not be able to know and will not be able to parse the received fragments
* if noise messages are received concatenated to one another, noise will interpret that as one big message and the integrity verification of the encrypted message (via GCM or Poly1305) will fail

In different words, without an indication of a length, noise cannot know where a message stops. Messages can get fragmented by middleboxes, and can get concatenated just because of latency or the way the other peer send its messages. In lab condition this might not be a problem, but in real life without a framing protocol below Noise things will fail quickly.

This is why **by default, you can't implement the components of the Noise specification and expect it to work**. Having said that, with this minimal addition of a length field things do work!

But that's not the only problem that the specification fails to tackle. **The other problem is the authentication of static public keys**.

You see, in Noise you have many different ways of doing handshakes (named `Noise_XX`, `Noise_KN`, ...), and some of them do not require one of the peer's authentication. Kind of like the typical browser ↔ webserver scenario where only the webserver will authenticate itself via a certificate (and perhaps the browser will later authenticate itself via credentials in a form). Some patterns that you should never use fail to authenticate both side (`Noise_NN`) and that is why I haven't implemented them. But for patterns that do authenticate one of the side (or both), problems arise: the Noise specification does not have any safeguards in its algorithms to prevent you from failing to authenticate the other side of the connection.

This means that if you implement Noise following the specification, patterns like `Noise_XX` where both sides require authentication will happily go through without caring about authenticating anything. This leads to trivial active man-in-the-middle attacks.

What I've done is that:

* if the pattern in use have your peer send a static public key to the other one, I **require** you to provide a proof when setting up your peer. Think about a signature from an authoritative root signing key.
* if the pattern in use have your peer receive a static public key from the other one, I **require** you to provide a callback function to verify that key, optionally using payloads sent during the handshake (for example, a certificate containing a signature).

To make things truly **plug-and-play**, I've created helper functions that let you generate an authoritative root signing key and create proofs or callbacks for a set of parameters. I've written some [documentation](https://github.com/mimoo/NoiseGo/tree/master/noise) here that should get you started in no time. If things are broken (this is a beta) or not clear please let me now.

**And again, don't use this in production.**

The biggest achievement of this implementation though is the fact that it is implementing the [net.Conn](https://golang.org/pkg/net/#Conn) interface of the Golang standard library. This mean that if you're already using networking code in your Go application, you can just replace your `net.Conn` or `tls.Conn` with `noise.Conn` and things will continue to work seamlessly. ]]>
Speaking at Defcamp David Wong Wed, 01 Nov 2017 18:07:50 +0100 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/426/speaking-at-defcamp/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/426/speaking-at-defcamp/#comments It's happening next week in Bucharest. If you're around there hit me up!

![defcamp](/upload/Screen_Shot_2017-11-01_at_5.05_.32_PM_.png) ]]>
Publishing my smart contract on the main ethereum network David Wong Fri, 27 Oct 2017 11:29:31 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/425/publishing-my-smart-contract-on-the-main-ethereum-network/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/425/publishing-my-smart-contract-on-the-main-ethereum-network/#comments
This is part II of [Writing a DAPP for the Ethereum block chain](https://www.cryptologie.net/article/424/writing-a-dapp-for-the-ethereum-block-chain/) I guess (where I previously said I would not publish this smart contract on the main network).

Pulling the entire Ethereum blockchain took me all afternoon. The thing is taking 29GB of disk space at the moment.

I sent ~20USD worth of ether (0.10 ether) from [Coinbase](http://coinbase.com) to my real Mist wallet and prepared to see how much it would cost to deploy my smart contract. Surprisingly it was cheap! It cost me 0.007715952 ETHER which is ~2USD (around 1 million unit of gas at 0.008 ether per million gas) to deploy my contract to [0x470fb19D08c3d2eB8923A31d1408c393Dab09ccF](https://etherscan.io/address/0x470fb19D08c3d2eB8923A31d1408c393Dab09ccF#code) an address computed out of my keypair and a nonce. I do not own its associated private key because I simply will never need it.

![etherscan source code](/upload/Screen_Shot_2017-10-26_at_7.52_.17_PM_.png)

To make sure the smart contract's code was properly open sourced on [etherscan.io](https://etherscan.io/address/0x470fb19D08c3d2eB8923A31d1408c393Dab09ccF#code) I had to put the source code there and provide the used compiler's version and the ABI encoded arguments to the controller. The ABI encoded arguments are just the 0-padded hexadecimal encoing of the arguments. I had two uint256 as arguments to my `FiveMedium()` constructor: the fee to post a thread and the fee to reply to a thread.


I decided to set the creation of a thread around 1$ and replying to a thread around 10 cents. It was then time to push the button and publish it.


And voila! You can access the DAPP on [davidwong.fr/FiveMedium](http://davidwong.fr/FiveMedium).

**Note**: the mandatory gas cost to post or reply on a thread seems to be around 0.30$. This has influenced me to lower down the contract fees to approach the gas fees. ]]>
Writing a DAPP for the Ethereum block chain David Wong Thu, 26 Oct 2017 14:29:56 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/424/writing-a-dapp-for-the-ethereum-block-chain/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/424/writing-a-dapp-for-the-ethereum-block-chain/#comments
<center><em>The <a href="http://www.davidwong.fr/FiveMedium/">FiveMedium</a> DAPP browsed from the Mist wallet</em></center>


I've been dabbing in **smart contract security** ([see my video here](https://www.cryptologie.net/article/423/attacks-on-ethereum-smart-contracts/)) and I found it natural to try and do a **DAPP** (decentralized application) myself. How hard can it be?

3.5 days later I've got back into Javascript after many years; I've learned [Vue.js](http://vuejs.org/) (kind of, my code is really ugly) and I've created [my first DAPP](http://davidwong.fr/FiveMedium/#/)!

First thing I'll have to say: **it's hella fun**.

Javascript has gone a long way and the **Vue.js** framework is just great! I've tried using React but I found it less developer-friendly, harder to learn and lacking in terms of template. It just didn't click. I guess coming from HTML first (and [jQuery](https://jquery.com/) later) the Vue.js framework just makes more sense to me. It's all about having fun and I wasn't having any with React.

I still want to create, modify and query things the jQuery way, but I'm getting used to the javascript modernities ([querySelector](https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Document/querySelector), [arrow functions](https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Functions/Arrow_functions), ...) and the Vue.js way. I like it. It will take some time to get rid of my old habits and re-think the way I write front end code but I like it.

Writing the **smart contract** is quite straight forward. It's 128 lines of [Solidity](http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/develop/) code, but most of it are comments (yes I comment my code). At one point I should publish it on [etherscan.io](https://etherscan.io) because this is best practice. It's not compiled with the last version of Solidity (boooo!) because I deployed it via [Mist](https://github.com/ethereum/mist) and Mist doesn't have the last version of Solidity.

![solidity code](/upload/Screen_Shot_2017-10-26_at_1.07_.29_PM_.png)

Writing the dapp with Vue.js and the [web3.js API](https://github.com/ethereum/web3.js/) (the javascript library to interact with the blockchain via an ethereum node) is pretty straight forward as well. The learning curve is not bad and there are tons of resources for beginners. That is, until you test your dapp with a real wallet like the [Metamask](https://metamask.io/) wallet (integrated as a browser plugin) or the official [Mist](https://github.com/ethereum/mist) wallet (Electron app). Different wallets offer different functions and versions of web3 (how it works: they inject the web3 object in your document and you can use it directly from your javascript webapp). They also (for the most part) refuse any synchronous calls on the web3 API without really providing ways for you to debug what is not synchronous in your call. A lot of functions have to be replaced for the asynchronous variants, any async/await has to disappear and you enter **callback hell**. Not fun.
The worst is that the documentation gets sparser and sparser as you enter the world of real DAPPs. You understand that things are changing really fast, that wallets will soon stop supporting web3.js and that a real API will be provided at some point. **Everything is way more experimental than I had thought**.
On top of that, Metamask doesn't let you watch for events yet, so say goodbye to your DAPP being "live" for their users.

To make the app **offline**, meaning browsable without a wallet, I use [Infura](https://infura.io/). You basically just have to switch the url of the node to the ones Infura gives you, and web3 will be able to interact with it the same way it interacts with a real node. This is because the standard works via normal Json-RPC routes using the Json way to structure queries and responses. Unfortunately, like Metamask, Infura doesn't let you listen to events so the app is browsable, but not live.

I haven't taken the time to publish the smart contract on the real ethereum network yet. It's sitting on Rinkeby which is a test network where you can get [ethers for free](https://www.rinkeby.io/). I'm not going to get rich on a test network, and some of my friends are eyeballing me for this decision (I see you jc) but this is fun and I want people to try it for free :)

Is it hard? No but it's annoying. First I need to pull up the whole Ethereum blockchain.

> As of April 19th, 2017, my blockchain size is 23.5 GB total.

*from [this Quora answer](https://www.quora.com/Does-the-Ethereum-walled-download-the-whole-blockchain-to-my-computer-Where-is-it-downloaded-to-and-what-is-the-size-as-of-April-2017)*

Second, I need some ethers, and **buying ethers from the UK is hard**. Of course I already have some (I wouldn't be writing anything about ethereum if I wasn't invested), but I had to go through weeks of research to buy them. (If you're looking for an easy way, learn from my wasted time: transfer money on a [Revolut](https://www.revolut.com/?lang=en) account, change it to euro, do a free SEPA transfer to [Kraken](http://kraken.com/), buy ethers there.)

**Anyone can replicate my work**. The DAPP is client-side code (javascript) so anyone can download it and run it on their own page. the contract is also up there on the blockchain, it's public stuff. I don't really like this, but it is how Ethereum works. If I someday drop the page from the internet, anyone can get it and run it. Run it on their own server, but also run it locally from their own machine.

If you want to see how it works without getting a wallet:

<iframe width="853" height="480" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/rZYiecJ_1b4" frameborder="0" gesture="media" allowfullscreen></iframe>

But I recommend you to **give a try** to this new technology!

Download [Mist](https://github.com/ethereum/mist), set the network to **Rinkeby**, grab some free ethers from the faucet [there](https://www.rinkeby.io/) and browse to my DAPP [FiveMedium](http://davidwong.fr/FiveMedium/).

**Have fun!**

PS: yes this is heavily inspired by 4chan. ]]>
Attacks on Ethereum Smart Contracts David Wong Wed, 11 Oct 2017 22:45:37 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/423/attacks-on-ethereum-smart-contracts/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/423/attacks-on-ethereum-smart-contracts/#comments It's a tl;dr of [A survey of attacks on Ethereum smart contracts](https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1007) by Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli.

<iframe width="860" height="505" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jDbQ7roq6Qg" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

ps: many thanks to [Matthew Di Ferrante](https://twitter.com/matthewdif) for the help! ]]>
Posters, figures and graphics David Wong Sun, 08 Oct 2017 18:51:32 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/422/posters-figures-and-graphics/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/422/posters-figures-and-graphics/#comments
I've also created a page for [graphics](/graphics). I only have 3 at the moment, but I know that PHD students often present posters like these at conferences so if you know any (or if you have one yourself) and you want me to showcase it there [send me a message](/contact)!

![crypto graphics](/upload/Screen_Shot_2017-10-08_at_6.49_.49_PM_.png) ]]>
Two Student Tickets for Black Hat Europe in December 2017 David Wong Wed, 04 Oct 2017 11:47:02 +0200 http://www.cryptologie.net/article/421/two-student-tickets-for-black-hat-europe-in-december-2017/ http://www.cryptologie.net/article/421/two-student-tickets-for-black-hat-europe-in-december-2017/#comments
Anyone interested?

**EDIT: no more tickets!** If you really want to go to Black Hat, I'd advise you to contact directly other speakers as every BH speaker is given 2 free pass for students. ]]>