Hey! I'm David, the author of the Real-World Cryptography book. I'm a crypto engineer at O(1) Labs on the Mina cryptocurrency, previously I was the security lead for Diem (formerly Libra) at Novi (Facebook), and a security consultant for the Cryptography Services of NCC Group. This is my blog about cryptography and security and other related topics that I find interesting.

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# Real World Crypto: Day 1 posted January 2016

Everyone was at CCC before new years eve, and everyone keeps talking about how great it was and how good a time they had... :(

But now is RWC2016 (nothing to do with the real world cup)! and it's awesome! and it's so far the best crypto convention I've attended!

Global overview and dumb summary of the day (followed by notes of the talks, so just skip this list):

• one big room composed of around 400-500 people in the middle of Stanford university
• it's raining, locals are happy, we are not
• talks of various times (10-40min) chained, on many different topics
• awkwardly meeting people
• free food (and great food!) and starbucks coffee (I think I'm the only one happy about that) and cypher wine

• 12 talks, only 1 girl
• every one in cryptography is here (diffie, rivest, watson ladd, boneh, djb, tanja, phong nguyen, lochter, trevor perrin, filippo, tancrede lepoint...)

## 09:30 - The Blackphone

tl;dw: marketing speech

Two human beings verbally compare the Short Authentication String, drawing the human brain directly into the protocol. And this is a Good Thing.

ZRTP seems to be a normal DH key exchange, except that you have to compare SAS (a hash) of the public keys aloud on the phone.

There is also the concept of key continuity, where you keep some value that will be used in the following DH key exchange.

If the MiTM is not present in the first call, he is locked out of subsequent calls

Makes me think, why the ratchet in Axolotl? Why the need to constantly change the key being used to encrypt? If someone knows the answer :)

• "don't let cryptographers design UX"
• the password is generated from their server and handed to the user... they say they don't want user to generate weak password. WTF
• encrypted dB -> they removed it because it was annoying people. WTF
• they replaced AES, sha2, etc... with "non-NIST" suite (twofish, ...) that comes from NIST funded competitions. WTF
• they used tanja and bernstein gifted curve (41417). They wanted a unique curve. WTF
• tanja asks a question (missed it), he answers "post-quantum right now is marketing". Haha

## 10:00 - Cryptographic directions in Tor: past and future

tl;dw: not much crypto at first, now crypto, in the future more weird crypto?

• they took a crypto class in 2004 and chose the ciphersuite for Tor from that -> AES-CTR, truncated sha1, plenty of bad decisions
• key negociation: RSA1024 + DH1024 + AES-CTR (no name, then they called it "TAP")
• links? they used TLS 1.0 (a link is the connection between two relays)
• they replaced a lot of it now
• key negociation: curve25519 + sha256 (called "ntor")
• tls >= 1.0, with ecdh (P256)
• work remains:
• truncated sha1 is too malleable
• not enough post quantum (and people are scared of that)
• need to remove rsa1024
• AES-CTR is malleable, MAC allows tagging attacks if first and third relays are evil -> woot?

Here's a blogpost from Tom Ritter about tagging attacks. The idea: the first node XOR some data to the ciphertext, the third node sees the modified data in clear (if the data is not going through https). So with two evil nodes, being the first and last, you can know who is visiting what website (traffic correlation).

There was also something about doing it with the sha1, and something about adding a MAC between each relay. But I missed that part, if someone can fill in the blanks for me?

• they want to use AEZ in the future (rogaway)? or HHFHFH? (djb)

• This is scary as many have stated. Djb said "crypto should be boring" (at least I heard he said that), and he's totally right. Or at least double encrypt (AES(AEZ(m)))
• AEZ is an authenticated cipher (think AES-GCM or chacha20-poly1305) that is part of the CAESAR competition
• HHFHFH is ...? No idea, if someone knows what Nick is talking about?
• Nick talks about newhope as well (I presume he's talking about this post-quantum key exchange?). He wants more post-quantum stuff in his thing.

## 10:20 - Anonize: An anonymous survey system

tl;dw: how to do an anonymous survey product with a nice UX (paper is here)

• problems of a surveys:
• you want authenticity (only authorized users, only one vote per person)
• anonymity (untracable response)
• surveymonkey (6% of the survey online):
• special URLs to trace responses to single users/groups
• anyone who infiltrate the system can get that info
• they do everything wrong
• Anonize overview
• 1) you create a public key
• 2) create survey, unique URL for everyone
• 3) you fill out something, you get a QR code
• what you submit is a [response, token] with the token a ZK proof for... something.
• they will publish API, and it's artistic

The talk was mostly spent on showing how beautiful the UX was. I would have prefered something clearer on how the protocol was really working (but maybe other understood better than me...)

## 11:10 - Cryptography in AllJoyn, an Open Source Framework for IoT

tl;dw: the key exchange protocol behind their AllJoyn, the security of devices that uses this AllJoyn api/interface...

What's AllJoyn? Something that you should use in your IoT stuff apparently:

AllJoyn is an open source software framework that makes it easy for devices and apps to discover and communicate with each other. Developers can write applications for interoperability regardless of transport layer, manufacturer, and without the need for Internet access. The software has been and will continue to be openly available for developers to download, and runs on popular platforms such as Linux and Linux-based Android, iOS, and Windows, including many other lightweight real-time operating systems.

• they want security to be the same whatever they use (tcp, udp, ip, bluetooth, etc.) so they created their own TLS-like protocol with way less options
• EC-SPEKE will replace PSK
• key exchange overview (~4 round trips to derive a session key, outch!)
• ECHDE_ECDSA key exchange
• devices are in "claimable" state when they join the network
• they get assigned a cert/policy by the security manager
• policy reffers to level of access/control
• app has a "manifest" of interfaces it wants to use (like facebook permissions)
• security manager has a change to see that and accept/refuse it

...

## 11:40 - High-assurance Cryptography

tl;dw: they have open source code to formaly verify cryptographic implementations

• they (Galois) have tools since 99 to verify crypto, using SMT solver, SAT solver, etc.
• acts as a compiler (from the user's point of view)
• everything he's talking about is open source:
• Cryptol, functionnal language. cryptol.net
• SAW The Software Assurance Workbench

SAW supports analysis of programs written in C, Java™, MATLAB®, and Cryptol, and uses efficient SAT and SMT solvers such as ABC and Yices.

• Verification engineers can use SAW to prove that a program implements its specification.
• Security analysts can have SAW generate models identifying constraints on program control flow to identify inputs that can reach potentially dangerous parts of a program.
• Cryptographers can have SAW generate models from production cryptographic code for import and use within Cryptol.
• takes to 10-100 minutes to verify a crypto primitive
• if you have a high formulation of your algorithm, why not make it write code?

## 12:00 - The first Levchin prize for contributions to real-word cryptography

tl;dw: dude with a lot of money decides to give some to influencal cryptographers every year, also gives them his name as a reward.

The Levchin prize honors significant contributions to real-world cryptography. The award celebrates recent advances that have had a major impact on the practice of cryptography and its use in real-world systems. Up to two awards will be given every year and each carries a prize of $10,000.$10,000, twice a year. It's the first edition. Max Levchin is the co-founder of paypal, he likes puzzles.

• first prize is awarded to Phillip Rogaway (unanimously) -> concrete security analysis, authenticated encryption, OCD, synack, format-preserving encryption, surveillance resistance crypto, etc. Well the guy is famous.
• second award goes to several people from INRIA for the miTLS project (Karthikeyan Bhargavan, Cedric Fournet, Markulf Kohlweiss, Alfredo Pironti). Well deserved.

## 14:00 - PrivaTegrity: online communication with strong privacy

tl;dw:

Well. David Chaum, Privategrity: "A wide range of consumer transcations multiparty/multijurisdiction -- efficientyl!"

I won't comment on that. Everything is in these slides:

I mean seriously, if you use slides like that, and talk really loud, people will think you are a genius? Or maybe the inverse. I'm really confused as to why that guy was authorized to give a talk.

## 14:30 - Software vulnerabilities in the Brazilian voting machine

tl;dw: br voting machine is a shitstorm

A direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine records votes by means of a ballot display provided with mechanical or electro-optical components that can be activated by the voter (typically buttons or a touchscreen); that processes data by means of a computer program; and that records voting data and ballot images in memory components. After the election it produces a tabulation of the voting data stored in a removable memory component and as printed copy. The system may also provide a means for transmitting individual ballots or vote totals to a central location for consolidating and reporting results from precincts at the central location. The device started to be massively used in 1996, in Brazil, where 100% of the elections voting system is carried out using machines. In 2004, 28.9% of the registered voters in the United States used some type of direct recording electronic voting system, up from 7.7% in 1996.

• 13 millions LOC. WTF
• 1) print zero tape first to prove no one has voted (meaningless)
• 2012, gov organized an open contest to find vulns in the system (what he did), extremly restricted, just a few hours, no pen/paper
• he found hardcoded keys in plain sight
• gov says it's a "voting software that checks itself" (what does it mean? canary in the assembly code? Complety nonsense and non-crypto)
• he tried a grep -r rand * and...
• got a match in a file: srand(time(NULL))
• this is predictible if you know the time, and they know the machines are launched between 7 and 8am. Bruteforce?
• the time is actually public, no need for brute force...
• gov asked if hashing the time would work, no? Well hashing the time twice then?
• finally fixed by using /dev/urandom although the voting machines have two hardware RNGs
• YouInspect: initiative, take pictures of the vote ticket, upload it (didn't get what was the point of that, didn't seem to yield any useful results)

tl;dw: blablabla

## 15:50 - QUIC Crypto

• the only talk with very few slides. Adam Langley only used them when he needed pedagogical support. This is brilliant.
• forward secure part of QUIC is better than forward secure in TLS (how? Didn't get that)
• QUIC crypto will be replaced by TLS 1.3
• QUIC will go on, but TLS works over TCP so they will have to make some changes?

There was this diagram where a client would send something to the server, if he didn't have the right ticket it wouldn't work, otherwise it would work... If you understood that part please tell me :)

## 16:20 - On the Security of TLS 1.3 and QUIC Against Weaknesses in PKCS#1 v1.5 Encryption

• most used tls version is 1.0 (invented in 1999, when windows 98 was the most used OS)
• pkcs#1 v1.5 is removed from tls 1.3
• the bleichenbacher attack on pkcs#1 v1.5 is still possible.... attack explained here (the thing works if you have a server which supports both 1.3 and older versions)
• idea of a solution?: use different certificates for 1.3 and 1.0

Someone from the audience: "no cool name and logo?"

## 16:40 - The State of Transport Security in the E-Mail Ecosystem

10 minutes of (painful) talk (but good job nonetheless Aaron: you went through to the end).

paper is here if you're interested: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.08646v2.pdf

## 16:50 - Where the Wild Warnings Are: The TLS Story

tl;dw: users get certificate errors browsing the net because their clock is not correct.

• users are getting used to errors, and tend to dismiss them
• making stats of errors warning to users:
• 51% of warnings are non-overridable
• errors come from the client:
• client clock misconfiguration (61%)
• they have an error for that that allows you to fix your clock on android
• can't send messages on whatsapp because of this problem as well
• captive portals
• security products
• ...
• errors come from the server:
• government has tons of errors with weird certificates
• ...

Someone in the public is suggesting that this is because the governments are trying to teach people to ignore these errors (obviously joking). Another one is saying that they might want users to add their "special certificate". Because it can overrides HSTS on rogue certificates. Don't know if this is true. But I'm thinking, why not add certificates for only the website that requests it. Like a certificate jail. Or maybe save the certificate in a different "user-added" folder, websites being signed by certificates from this folder would make chrome display "this website is signed by a certificate you added. If you think this is not normal blablabla".

APF is talking about how they are scared that users will get desensitized by errors, but why display errors? Why not just display a warning. That would annoy real servers and oblige them to get their certs in order, that would make the users suspicious but not unable to access their website (and to google for solutions like "just add the certificates in your root store").

Watson Ladd (that the host recognized) asked her how far from the real time the clock were setup. He thought maybe it could be the battery killing the laptop, NTP not working right away (I missed why) and so the time difference would be negative. In my understanding the clock difference was causing a problem because of certificates notBefore or notAfter fields, so that wouldn't be a problem.

Also people are wondering why these clocks are different, if they should fix it for the user? But maybe not since it might be that the user want his clock to be incorrect... I just remember a time when I would purposely modify the time so that I could keep using my time limited trials (photoshop?).

day 2 notes are here

# Happy New Year posted January 2016

First: happy new year dear readers !

As I'm packing my bags to leave the temporary comfort of my parent's place, I'm taking the time to write a bit about my life (this is a blog after all).

I started this blog more than 2 years ago right before moving to Bordeaux to start a master in Cryptography. I had just finished a long bachelor of Mathematics between the universities of Lyon (France) and McMaster (Canada) and had decided to merge my major with an old passion of mine (Computer Science).

Hey guys, I'm David Wong, a 24 years old french dude who's going to start a Master of Cryptology in the university of Bordeaux 1.

I had been blogging for decades and it's naturally that I decided to start something that I could look at and be proud at the end of my master. Sort of a journal of a 2 years project. I was also counting on it to give me some motivation in time of adversity, and it started taking shape with tutorial videos on classes I couldn't understand (here's my first on Differential Power Analysis) and long articles about failed interviews (here's the one I made after interviewing with Cloudflare)

I still have no clue what my future job will be, that's why I had the idea of making this small blog where I could post about my ventures into this new world and, hopefully, being able to take a step back and see what I did, what I liked, what happened in two years of Master (and maybe more).

Fast forward and I was interning at Cryptography Services, the crypto team of NCC Group. An amazing internship of around 5 months spent in Chicago in the Matasano office: working on public audits (OpenSSL, Let's Encrypt) and private ones, giving presentations at the company, publishing a research paper, training a class in crypto at Blackhat, hanging out at Defcon and writing several articles for our crypto bulletin.

I'll also post some thoughts about the new city I'll be moving to : Bordeaux. This is for at least 2 years, or less if I change my mind. Anyway, this is going to be exciting!

That was 2 years ago, and indeed those years are now filled with memories and achievements that I will forever cherish. If you're passing by France and you didn't plan a visit in Bordeaux, you're missing out.

But anyway, as you probably know since you don't miss any of my blogpost, I've been since hired by the same people and will be back in the office in two weeks. In two weeks because before then I will be at the Real World Crypto convention in Stanford university, and after that at NCC Con in Austin. A lot is going to happen in just a few weeks, plus I'll have to find a new place to live and re-calibrate with the desk I left behind...

Now, here we go again.

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# PQCHacks: A gentle introduction to post-quantum cryptography posted December 2015

With all the current crypto talks out there you get the idea that crypto has problems. crypto has massive usability problems, has performance problems, has pitfalls for implementers, has crazy complexity in implementation, stupid standards, millions of lines of unauditable code, and then all of these problems are combined into a grand unified clusterfuck called Transport Layer Security.

Check that 32c3 video of djb and tanja

It explains a few of the primitives backed by PQCrypto for a post-quantum world. I did myself a blog series on hash-based signatures which I think is clearer than the above video.

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# How to parse scans.io public keys in python posted December 2015

I wanted to check for weak private exponents in RSA public keys of big website's certificates. I went on scans.io and downloaded the Alex Top 1 Million domains handshake of the day. The file is called zgrab-results and weighs 6.38GB uncompressed (you need google's lz4 to uncompress it, get it with brew install lz4).

Then the code to parse it in python:

with open('rro2asqbnwy45jrm-443-https-tls-alexa_top1mil-20151223T095854-zgrab-results.json') as ff:
for line in ff:
if 'tls' not in lined["data"] or 'server_certificates' not in lined["data"]["tls"].keys() or 'parsed' not in lined["data"]["tls"]["server_certificates"]["certificate"]:
continue
server_certificate = lined["data"]["tls"]["server_certificates"]["certificate"]["parsed"]
public_key = server_certificate["subject_key_info"]
signature_algorithm = public_key["key_algorithm"]["name"]
if signature_algorithm == "RSA":
modulus = base64.b64decode(public_key["rsa_public_key"]["modulus"])
e = public_key["rsa_public_key"]["exponent"]
N = int(modulus.encode('hex'), 16)
print "modulus:", N
print "exponent:", e

I figured if the public exponent was too small (e.g. smaller than 1000000, an arbitrary lower bound), it would not work. Unfortunately it seemed like every single one of these RSA public keys were using the public exponent 65537.

PS: to parse other .csv files, just open sqlite and write .import the_file.csv tab, then .schema tab or any SQL query on tab will work ;)

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# Juniper's backdoor posted December 2015

A few days ago, Juniper made an announcement on 2 backdoors in their ScreenOS application.

But no details were to be found in this advisory. Researchers from the twitter-sphere started digging, and finally the two flaws were found. The first vulnerability is rather crypto-y and this is what I will explain here.

First, some people realized by diffing strings of the patched and vulnerable binaries that some numbers were changed

Then they realized that these numbers were next to the parameters of the P-256 NIST ECC curve. Worse, they realized that the modified values were these of the Dual EC PRNG: from a Juniper's product information page you could read that Dual EC had been removed from most of their products except ScreenOS. Why's that? No one knows, but they assured that the implementation was not visible from the outside, and thus the NSA's backdoor would be unusable.

Actually, reading the values in their clean binaries, it looks like they had changed the NSA's values introducing their own $Q$ point and thus canceling NSA's backdoor. But at the same time, maybe, introducing their own backdoor. Below the NSA's values for the point $P$ and $Q$ from the cached NIST publications:

Reading the previous blog post, you can see how they could have easily modified $Q$ to introduce their own backdoor. This doesn't mean that it is what they did. But at the time of the implementation, it was not really known that Dual EC was a backdoor, and thus there was no real reason to change these values.

According to them, and the code, a second PRNG was used and Dual EC's only purpose was to help seeding it. Thus no real Dual EC output would see the surface of the program. The second PRNG was a FIPS approved one based on 3DES and is -- as far as I know -- deemed secure.

Another development came along and some others noticed that the call for the second PRNG was never made, this was because a global variable pnrg_output_index was always set to 32 through the prng_reseed() function.

Excerpt of the full code:

This advance was made because of Juniper's initial announcement that there were indeed two vulnerabilities. It seems like they were aware of the fact that Dual EC was the only PRNG being used in their code.

Now, how is the Dual EC backdoor controlled by the hackers? You could stop reading this post right now and just watch the video I made about Dual EC, but here are some more explanations anyway:

This above is the basis of a PRNG. You start it with a seed $s_0$ and every time you need a random number you first create a new state from the current one (here with the function $f$), then you output a transformation of the state (here with the function $g$).

If the function $g$ is one-way, the output doesn't allow you to retrieve the internal state and thus you can't predict future random numbers, neither retrieve past ones.

If the function $f$ is one-way as well, retrieving the internal state doesn't allow you to retrieve past state and thus past random numbers generated by the PRNG. This makes the PRNG forward-secure.

This is Dual EC. Iterating the state is done by multiplying the current state with the point $P$ and then taking it's $x$-th coordinate. The point $P$ is a point on a curve, with $x$ and $y$ coordinates, multiplying it with an integer gives us a new point on the curve. This is a one-way function because of the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem and thus our PRNG is forward-secure (the ECDLP states that if you know $P$ and $Q$ in $P = dQ$, it's really hard to find $d$).

The interesting thing is that, in the attacker knows the secret integer $d$ he can recover the next internal state of the PRNG. First, as seen above, the attacker recovers one random output, and then tries to get the full output: the real random output is done by truncating the first 16 bits of the full output. This is done in $2^16$ iterations. Easy.

With our random number $r_1$ (in our example), which is the $x$ coordinate of our point $s_1 Q$, we can easily recover the $y$ coordinate and thus the entire point $s_1 Q$. This is because of how elliptic curves are shaped.

Multiplying this point with our secret value $d$ we obtain the next internal state as highlighted at the top of this picture:

This attack is pretty destructive and in the order of mere minutes according to Dan Bernstein et al

For completeness, it is important to know that there were two other constructions of the Dual EC PRNG with additional inputs, that allowed to add entropy to the internal state and thus provide backward secrecy: retrieving the internal state doesn't allow you to retrieve future states.

The first construction in 2006 broke the backdoor, the second in 2007 re-introduced it. Go figure...

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# How to check if a binary contains the Dual EC backdoor for the NSA posted December 2015

tl;dr:

this is what you should type:

strings your_binary | grep -C5 -i "c97445f45cdef9f0d3e05e1e585fc297235b82b5be8ff3efca67c59852018192\|8e722de3125bddb05580164bfe20b8b432216a62926c57502ceede31c47816edd1e89769124179d0b695106428815065\|1b9fa3e518d683c6b65763694ac8efbaec6fab44f2276171a42726507dd08add4c3b3f4c1ebc5b1222ddba077f72943b24c3edfa0f85fe24d0c8c01591f0be6f63"

After all the Jupiner fiasco, I wondered how people could look if a binary contained an implementation of Dual EC, and worse, if it contained Dual EC with the NSA's values for P and Q.

The easier thing I could think of is the use of strings to check if the binary contains the hex values of some Dual EC parameters:

strings your_binary | grep -C5 -i python -c "print '%x' % 115792089210356248762697446949407573530086143415290314195533631308867097853951"

This is the value of the prime p of the curve P-256. Other curves can be used for Dual EC though, so you should also check for the curve P-384:

strings your_binary | grep -C5 -i python -c "print '%x' % 39402006196394479212279040100143613805079739270465446667948293404245721771496870329047266088258938001861606973112319"

and the curve P-521:

strings your_binary | grep -C5 -i python -c "print '%x' % 6864797660130609714981900799081393217269435300143305409394463459185543183397656052122559640661454554977296311391480858037121987999716643812574028291115057151 "

I checked the binaries of ScreenOS (taken from here) and they contained these three curves parameters. But this doesn't mean anything, just that these curves are stored, maybe used, maybe used for Dual EC...

To check if it uses the NSA's P and Q, you should grep for P and Q x coordinates from the same NIST paper.

This looks for all the x coordinates of the different P for each curves. This is not that informative since it is the standard point P as a generator of P-256

strings your_binary | grep -C5 -i "6b17d1f2e12c4247f8bce6e563a440f277037d812deb33a0f4a13945d898c296\|aa87ca22be8b05378eb1c71ef320ad746e1d3b628ba79b9859f741e082542a385502f25dbf55296c3a545e3872760ab7\|c6858e06b70404e9cd9e3ecb662395b4429c648139053fb521f828af606b4d3dbaa14b5e77efe75928fe1dc127a2ffa8de3348b3c1856a429bf97e7e31c2e5bd66"

Testing the ScreenOS binaries, I get all the matches. This means that the parameters for P-256 and maybe Dual EC are indeed stored in the binaries.

weirdly, testing for Qs I don't get any match. So Dual EC or not?

strings your_binary | grep -C5 -i "c97445f45cdef9f0d3e05e1e585fc297235b82b5be8ff3efca67c59852018192\|8e722de3125bddb05580164bfe20b8b432216a62926c57502ceede31c47816edd1e89769124179d0b695106428815065\|1b9fa3e518d683c6b65763694ac8efbaec6fab44f2276171a42726507dd08add4c3b3f4c1ebc5b1222ddba077f72943b24c3edfa0f85fe24d0c8c01591f0be6f63"

The Dual_EC_DRBG 'Q' parameter was replaced with 9585320EEAF81044F20D55030A035B11BECE81C785E6C933E4A8A131F6578107 and the secondary ANSI X.9.31 PRNG was broken, allowing raw Dual_EC output to be exposed to the network. Please see this blog post for more information.

Diffing the vulnerable (and patched binaries. I see that only the P-256 curve $Q$ was modified from Juniper's values, other curves were left intact. I guess this means that only the P-256 curve was being used in Dual EC.

If you know how Dual EC works (if you don't check my video), you know that to establish a backdoor into it you need to generate $P$ and $Q$ accordingly. So changing the value $Q$ with no correlation to $P$ is not going to work, worse it could be that $Q$ is too "close" to P and thus the secret $d$ linking them could be easily found ( $P = dQ$).

Now one clever way to generate a secure $Q$ with a strong value $d$ that only you would know is to choose a large and random $d$ and calculate its inverse $d^{-1} \pmod{ord_{E}}$. You have your $Q$ and your $d$!

$d^{-1} P = Q$

bonus: here's a small script that attempts to find $d$ in the hypothesis $d$ would be small (the fastest way to compute an elliptic curve discrete log is to use Pollard Rho's algorithm)

p256 = 115792089210356248762697446949407573530086143415290314195533631308867097853951
a256 = p256 - 3
b256 =  41058363725152142129326129780047268409114441015993725554835256314039467401291

## base point values
gx = 48439561293906451759052585252797914202762949526041747995844080717082404635286
gy = 36134250956749795798585127919587881956611106672985015071877198253568414405109

## order of the curve
qq = 115792089210356248762697446949407573529996955224135760342422259061068512044369

# init curve
FF = GF(p256)
EE = EllipticCurve([FF(a256), FF(b256)])

# define the base point
G = EE(FF(gx), FF(gy))

# P and Q
P = EE(FF(0x6b17d1f2e12c4247f8bce6e563a440f277037d812deb33a0f4a13945d898c296), FF(0x4fe342e2fe1a7f9b8ee7eb4a7c0f9e162bce33576b315ececbb6406837bf51f5))

# What is Q_y ?
fakeQ_x = FF(0x9585320EEAF81044F20D55030A035B11BECE81C785E6C933E4A8A131F6578107)
fakeQ = EE.lift_x(fakeQ_x)

print discrete_log(P, fakeQ, fakeQ.order(), operation='+')

The lift_x function allows me to get back the $y$ coordinate of the new $Q$:

EE.lift_x(fakeQ_x)
(67629950588023933528541229604710117449302072530149437760903126201748084457735 : 36302909024827150197051335911751453929694646558289630356143881318153389358554 : 1)
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# Analyze a TLS handshake posted December 2015

Short blogpost on a quick way to analyze a TLS handshake:

In one terminal, setup the server:

openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -nodes
openssl s_server -cert cert.pem -key key.pem

The first command use the req toolkit of openssl. It is usually used to create certificate request (and the request is then later approved by a CA), but since we're in a rush, let's just use it with the -x509 option to directly generate a certificate. rsa:2048 generates a key with the algorithm RSA and with a modulus of size 2048 bits. -nodes disable the use of a passphrase to protect the key (the default protect the key by encrypting it with DES).

In a second terminal, start capturing packets:

tcpdump -i lo0 -s 65535 -w exchange.cap

65535 is the maximum length of a packet.

Start a handshake in a third terminal:

openssl s_client -connect localhost:4433


Now open the .cap with Wireshark!

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# How to efficiently compute a batch GCD posted December 2015

Heard a bit late about the factorable research results and how they used batch gcd to recover a bunch of servers' private keys.

The question one could think of is how to efficiently do a batch gcd on a big set of public keys?

From this utility:

• Actual pairwise GCD
This performs n*(n-1)/2 GCD operations on the moduli. This is slow. Don't use this.
• Accumulating Product
This iterates over all input moduli, performing a GCD of each one against the product of all previous. Once it finds a candidate, it scans all previous moduli to find out which ones it shared a factor with (either GCD or division, depending on whether one or both were found). The main scan cannot be done in parallel, and even though it seems like this is O(n), the increasing size of the accumulated product results it lots of long multiplication and long divison so it's still painfully slow for large numbers of moduli.

Looks like the most efficient ways come from Dan Bernstein (again!), in a 7 pages paper

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